The transaction model of communication describes communication as a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts. Conversely, people with identities that are dominant or in the majority may rarely, if ever, think about the role their cultural identities play in their communication. For example, when you say “Hello!” to your friend, you are sending a message of greeting that will be received by your friend. Many forms of communication previously thought one-way, like books and television, have become interactive with the rise of computers, the Internet, and digital and mobile devices. In this section, you will learn about three models of communication: I. Interest in interactive communication has grown with the increase in human-computer interaction. Instead of labeling participants as senders and receivers, the people in a communication encounter are referred to as communicators. The interactive model of communication (see Figure 1.2)expands our understanding of the communication process by taking into account that messages flow back and forth from the receiver. Although the receiver is included in the model, this role is viewed as more of a target or end point rather than part of an ongoing process. Figure 2.2.2 The interactive model of communication. The message flows in a straight line from sender to the receiver. One person, the sender, wants to send a piece of information, the message. Figure 2.2.3 The transaction model of communication. Feedback and context help make the interaction model a more useful illustration of the communication process, but the transaction model views communication as a powerful tool that shapes our realities beyond individual communication encounters. Interactive model of communication. The radio announcer doesn’t really know if you receive their message or not, but if the equipment is working and the channel is free of static, then there is a good chance that the message was successfully received. Hardware peripherals include keyboards, mice, game controllers and webcams. Gesture, touch and body language were the earliest forms of communication. The three models of communication we will discuss are the transmission, interaction, and transaction models. This is an important addition to the model because it allows us to understand how we are able to adapt our communication—for example, a verbal message—in the middle of sending it based on the communication we are simultaneously receiving from our communication partner. Communication Models Communication Models are conceptual models used to explain the human communication process. As we will learn later, the level of conscious thought that goes into encoding messages varies. Physical context includes the environmental factors in a communication encounter. Feedback includes messages sent in response to other messages. Since the transaction model of communication views communication as a force that shapes our realities before and after specific interactions occur, it must account for contextual influences outside of a single interaction. We also can’t consciously decide to stop communicating because communication is more than sending and receiving messages. The transaction model differs from the transmission and interaction models in significant ways, including the conceptualization of communication, the role of sender and receiver, and the role of context (Barnlund, 1970). Interactive Model of Communication Interactive model or convergence model is similar to transactional model as they are both two way communication model. The interactive model is also less message focused and more interaction focused. But, interactive model is mostly used for new media like internet. To do this, the transaction model considers how social, relational, and cultural contexts frame and influence our communication encounters. Models still serve a valuable purpose for students of communication because they allow us to see specific concepts and steps within the process of communication, define communication, and apply communication concepts. The interactive model requires several components to be successful: Two sources: The originator of the message and the recipient of the message are both sources. Shannon, C. and Weaver, W. (1949). Seemingly positive psychological states, like experiencing the emotion of love, can also affect communication. The communication process take place between humans or machines in both verbal or non- verbal way. According to this model, exchange of ideas and messages takes place both ways form sender to receiver and vice versa. "A profile of the interactive communication professional foundations, current trends and perspectives",, Master's degree in Interactive Communications at Quinnipiac University,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 February 2020, at 17:12. Why do models (of anything) matter in the real world? The message: The information being exchanged. While communication can be sent and received using any sensory route (sight, smell, touch, taste, or sound), most communication occurs through visual (sight) and/or auditory (sound) channels. Think of how a radio message is sent from a person in the radio studio to you listening in your car. Rhetoric is the effective use of language. New experiments in interaction design are evolving on a daily basis. Aristotle’s Model. Sender and receiver both play equally important role in communication. Decoding is the process of turning communication into thoughts. It is a dynamic, two-way flow of information.[1]. The linear or transmission model of communication, as shown in Figure 2.2.1, describes communication as a linear, one-way process in which a sender intentionally transmits a message to a receiver (Ellis & McClintock, 1990). Some people, especially those with identities that have been historically marginalized, are regularly aware of how their cultural identities influence their communication and influence how others communicate with them. Once human cognition and thought evolved, varieties of language and communication increased exponentially. Some messages are also unintentionally sent. Encoded messages are sent through a channel, or a sensory route on which a message travels, to the receiver for decoding.

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