Except for young seedlings, the disease rarely attacks trees under 15 years of age and most severely damages trees that are older than 30 years. Diplodia and Phomopsis are both considered weak or secondary pathogens, so it is unclear at this point why they appear to cause major disease problems for spruce. The most common needle problem of blue spruce in Maryland is a fungal disease caused by Rhizosphaeria kalkoffii.. June 28, 2019. Generally all needles on the current season’s shoot are killed.Often resin droplets are seen on the dead shoots. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. Canker diseases are caused by fungi that infect branches or the main stem of trees. Numerous insect pests can impact spruces in Michigan’s landscape, but the two most common are gall adelgids and spruce spider mites. Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. Although they are produced from spring to early fall, they are especially abundant in spring and early summer, when the new shoots (candles) are expanding. Inner needles first become discolored … Often resin droplets are seen on the dead shoots. This distinction is important since not all insecticides will control mites. The likelihood of having success can be improved by planting blue spruce trees on sites with conditions they favor. Finally, for decades the default diagnosis for most problems with blue spruce has been Rhizosphaera needlecast or Cytospora branch canker. Use pesticides safely and wisely; read and follow label directions. Tip blight infection year after year can weaken and even kill large Austrian pine trees. In both cases, the insect pests are tiny and you may need a hand lens to see them. 2. Norway spruce is relatively resistant. When severe, limbs over the entire tree can be affected. Left, Needlecasts kill older (inner) needles, but leave newer needles unaffected. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Left, Gall caused by Cooley spruce adelgid. READ LABEL INSTRUCTIONS ON CONTAINER FOR DILUTION RATES AND METHODS OF APPLICATION. Some locations have an additional infection period in September and October. Needlecasts and evergreen tip blights characteristically occur on the lower branches and work upward in successive years. Maintain a layer of mulch under the tree to conserve moisture. Pruning tools should be disinfected between cuts by dipping them in alcohol or bleach (one part bleach to nine parts of water). Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement made by The Morton Arboretum. Phomopsis tip blight is one of the most common fungal diseases of conifers in Wisconsin. To have a digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https://extension.msu.edu/newsletters. Use enter to activate. Photos 6-7. 3. Damage from gall adelgids is mainly aesthetic. When the new needles (candles) are expanding, they become stunted, turn yellow, and then turn tan or brown. Building the urban forest for 2050. Right, Resin oozing from a branch canker caused by Cytospora. The needles begin to die several weeks after infection. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. Lirula needle blight can infect white spruce (Picea glauca), including Black Hills spruce and Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens). The most common disease of blue spruce is Rhizosphaera needle cast, a fungal disease that usually requires fungicides for management when it occurs. Although spruce decline is widespread and appears to be increasing, it is not a certainty that all trees will be affected. Tip blights are most common on pines, especially Austrian pines, but can also occur on spruces. Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection. Needle Cast or Needle Blight. Once the fungus penetrates the plant, it quickly spreads throughout the needles, then to the stem and into nearby needles and cones. Question: I have a blue spruce that is 40-years old and very tall. ; Then the needles turn brown, or sometimes purplish brown, before they defoliate through the late summer into fall. As the disease progresses, the needles die, usually the year following the infection. Photos 8-9. 1. Later in fall after the needles have died, the pycnidia appear on the base of the needles or on second year seed cones. Also read about Spectro 90 copper based fungus control. Blue spruce trees are widely planted due to their good growth rate, stately form and, of course, their blue foliage. Maintain tree health because the disease is more severe on trees that are under stress. Needlecasts. Frequently asked questions about spruce decline. There are three principle types of diseases that affect blue spruce trees: needlecasts, tip blights and canker diseases. Photo credits: Left and middle photo, Dennis Fulbright, MSU; right photo, Michael Kangas, NDSU, Bugwood.org. Left, Decline symptoms moving upward. Michigan State University Extension recommends homeowners diversify their landscapes to help make their landscapes more resilient to pest and environmental changes, and seek to plant a variety of species wherever possible. Candles can only be infected by the fungus while they are elongating in the spring. For large or important landscape trees, homeowners should contact a professional arborist or tree care company. From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. All of these diseases are caused by fungal pathogens and each produce specific symptoms that can be useful in diagnosing the problem. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. use escape to move to top level menu parent. York. The user is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Needle Cast or Needle Blight. Canker diseases. Douglas-fir, white, Norway, and blue spruce may also be infected, but infection of these species usually develops only on trees that are injured or stressed and when infected …

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